I would like to express my endless thanks to Professor Marcello Veiga who was a very important guide during my first steps as an immigrant to Canada and as an engineer looking for opportunities in Canada. This data does not specify who is driving the truck; therefore, the drive ranges are assumed in the model as it cannot be known from the data. For the Miller data, the tire diameter is estimated at 0. Latex master thesis template mit. Figure 28 shows driver speed variations while Figure 29 shows the instantaneous net power for this segment. Autonomous haulage trucks represent only one part of a totally-automated open-pit mine. The model has a simple rescheduling algorithm used to reassign trucks to maintain the stripping ratio close to the set level.
This represents about 1. Cycle times, delays, and production output? Automation can improve safety and health in the workplace by removing humans from repetitive tasks and positions of danger and to elevate human capacity and abilities by creating new job tasks. This heat is generated faster than it dissipates into the atmosphere from the rubber surfaces and will concentrates in the ply or belt. Changes in cycle time in the model are strongly dependent on the crew makeup.
Chapter 5 gives more details of this approach. The green data shows the cool-down occurring when a “hot” tire is in an idling condition. The model calculates acceleration in a deterministic way for each time step. Fuzzy logic, a form of multi-valued logic based on principles of approximate reasoning Von,has been used to calculate dynamic changes in rolling resistance and traction coefficient see Figure 13 according to environmental conditions precipitation.
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The variable that accounts for the weight of a truck changes dynamically as it is loaded or as it dumps its load Parreira et al. There are three factors that contribute to a longer distance travelled by human drivers: Improvements take place slowly according to knowledge gained and the experience of acceptance by stakeholders. Aggressiveness factor and stability factor Appendix 1 shows the details of the julkana performed.
Tire wear can be characterized in a number of ways Meech et al. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Thesis paper about time management.
The model also considers variations in road segment lengths due to driver behaviour. Stability of the Model For safety purposes, cycle times may be longer with trucks travelling more slowly. Speed variations over time step: Note that the Autonomous mode shows an improvement in the fuel consumption KPI of juliaana.
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Ibo extended essay guide The heat generated is a function of the energy that flows through each tire which is a function of the vehicle weight and its speed as follows: Driver’s thinking, such as: For this range of variation and an average condition of 7. Some research claims that H is dependent on speed. I am grateful to Dr. Vina Del Mar, Chile, October It is considered that the extremely large deviations shown in Table 2 are likely due to haulage route changes rather than lateral displacement.
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The same happens with a failure close to lunch time if the breakdown time overlaps the lunch break, so the driver does not need to stop again for lunch. Although an ultra-high-capacity haulage truck is considerably different than a passenger car, there are several measures that can scale-up quite naturally into an open-pit situation.
FRR is difficult to estimate, and each mine sets its own rolling resistance value which considers the combination of road conditions and equipment Karaftath, Fuzzy rule base used to predict wear rate from speed and payload This contact percentage is 7.
Since the analysis is dealing with a gravel road, the frequency of trucks passing, together with maintenance practices grading and wateringwill affect the rolling resistance of the road surface on a daily basis. An economic assessment of an AHS system versus a manual fleet shows an after-tax incremental discounted cash flow rate of return of Every time a driver goes to a break, the time that takes to drive from parking to shovel is included in the cycle time.
The driver performance decreased only towards the end of the day period.