The 20 steps below show you how to analyse your data using a mixed ANOVA in SPSS Statistics, including which post hoc test to select to determine where any differences lie, when none of the seven assumptions in the previous section, Assumptions , have been violated. They draw heavily on statistical analysis techniques to examine the data collected, whether descriptive or inferential in nature. This can be a simple process, but the setup you need to use will vary based on the type of data you have, as well as the statistical test you are using to analyse your data. The dependent variable, “stress level”, is subsequently measured over four time points, which reflects the within-subjects factor, “time” i. Generalisation , and certainly, Route C: Once you have selected the route you plan to follow, we use extensive, step-by-step guides to help you carry out, and subsequently write up your chosen route.

Whilst it is best to consult your dissertation guidelines to see which components you are required to include, your research strategy generally requires that you are able to describe , explain and justify:. Your dissertation guidelines may refer to this important chapter or section of your dissertation as Research Design , Research Methodology or Research Methods , but these are just three of the components that can be included in the Research Strategy chapter. SPSS Statistics Example A researcher wanted to discover whether the intensity of an exercise-training programme, but with equal calorific expenditure, had an effect on cholesterol concentration over a six-month period. We provide some examples below: Transfer the between-subjects factor, group , into the B etween-Subjects Factor s: What statistical tests are most appropriate will depend on your study design, the hypotheses or research questions you are trying to answer, as well as the types of variables you have used.

Step 1: Research paradigm for your dissertation | Lærd Dissertation

In this respect, this descriptive research question differs from the earlier question that asked: SECTION D Sampling Strategy Sampling involves collecting units also called casesobjects that you are going to analyse to help answer the research questions you have set in your dissertation.

First, we introduce the example that is used in this guide. At the end of these 20 steps, we explain what results you will need to interpret from your mixed ANOVA. Can an exercise-training programme lead to a reduction in blood sugar levels? Replication-based dissertationwe guide you through these three possible routes: Transfer the between-subjects factor, groupinto the B etween-Subjects Factor s: This can be a simple process, but the setup you need to use will vary based on the type of data you have, as well as the statistical test you are using to analyse your data.


Examples of relationship-based research questions are:. Some of these starting phrases are highlighted in blue text in the examples below:. One of the most important sections of your Research Strategy chapter is a discussion of the criteria by which the quality of your findings should be assessed. As a result, assuming that including a Research Paradigm section within your Research Strategy chapter is a must, this leaves you with two choices: This will generate the output.

The first stage in any data analysis is to identify the correct statistical tests to analyse dussertation data with.

This is because the research strategy you implement in your dissertation consists of a number of componentsand these components are all interrelated; that is, the choice of one component e. Therefore, the dependent variable was “cholesterol concentration”, the within-subjects factor was “time” and the between-subjects factor was the “conditions” Disserttion.

Types of quantitative research question | Lærd Dissertation

In this article, we discuss each of these four stepsas well as providing examples for the three types of quantitative reseaech question you may want to create: Ersearch, you need to do this for both factors.

Take the following examples in red text: GOAL C Testing for differences between groups or treatment conditions Are you trying to test for differences between groups e. Before discussing this further, take a look at the examples below, which illustrate the three more common types of study design where a mixed ANOVA is used:.

laerd dissertation research design

The choice you make is highly specific to your proposed research. Instead, we typically start a relationship-based quantitative research question, “What is the relationship? The examples illustrate the difference between the use of a single group e.


One of the problems or challenges of mixed methods dissertations is that qualitative and quantitative research, as you will have seen from the two previous sections, are very different in approach. We could describe factors relating to their behaviour, such as how frequently they used Facebook each week or the reasons why they joined Facebook in the first place e.

It justifies your choice of sampling technique. Data-driven dissertationswhich we will be launching shortly, we introduce you to these two routes i. Instead, you need to determine the difference between your groups at each level of each factor.

What is the relationship between study time and exam scores amongst university students? However, even when your data fails certain assumptions, there is often a solution to try and overcome this. Over this 8 week period, back pain is measured at three time points, which represents the three groups of the “within-subjects” factor, “time” i.

laerd dissertation research design

In terms of the first descriptive research question about daily calorific intakewe are not necessarily interested in frequenciesor using a measure of central tendency or measure of spreadbut instead want understand what percentage of American men and women exceed their daily calorific allowance.

When doing research, we summarise these beliefs under so-called research paradigms.

Mixed ANOVA using SPSS Statistics

Well-known theories include social capital theory Social Sciencesmotivation theory Psychologyagency theory Business Studiesevolutionary theory Biologyquantum theory Physicsadaptation theory Sports Scienceand so forth. This starts with entering data into SPSS Statistics, through to testing the assumptions that are required when using different statistical test, and finally, showing you how to analyse, interpret and write up your data.

laerd dissertation research design

While SPSS Statistics produces many tables, in particular, you often only need to interpret and report a small proportion of these.